AS and A2 Chemistry notes and resources (WJEC specification) - UNIT CH4 Spectroscopy and Organic Chemistry (Analysing and building molecules)

This unit builds on the foundation ideas of spectroscopy and basic organic chemistry introduced at AS level and goes on to explore these concepts in more detail. It also explores the use of these topics in structure elucidation, in synthesis and in industrial and environmental applications.

TOPIC 12 - Organic compounds containing nitrogen

Candidates should be able to:

(a) describe the preparation of primary aliphatic (¢Ó) and aromatic amines from halogenoalkanes and nitrobenzenes respectively;

(b) recall that, and explain why, amines are basic;

(c) recall the ethanoylation reaction of primary amines using ethanoyl chloride ¢Ó;

(d) compare the reaction of primary aliphatic and aromatic amines with cold nitric(III) acid (nitrous acid), describe the coupling of benzenediazonium salts with phenols such as naphthalen-2-o1 and aromatic amines and the importance of this reaction for azo dyes; recall the role of the . = . N N chromophore in azo dyes and be aware that this group links two aromatic rings;

(e) recall the general formulae of ¥á-amino acids and discuss their amphoteric and zwitterionic nature;

(f) write down the possible dipeptides formed from two different ¥á-amino acids;

(g) understand the formation of polypeptides and proteins and have an outline understanding of primary, secondary and tertiary protein structure;

(h) show an awareness of the importance of proteins in living systems, e.g. as enzymes;

(i) recall in outline the mode the synthesis and the industrial importance of polyamides and understand the similarity of the O C N | H || . . . linkage to that in naturally occurring proteins.