AS and A2 Chemistry notes and resources (WJEC specification) - UNIT CH2. Properties, Structure and Bonding

The uses to which materials can be put depend on their properties, which in turn depend on the bonding and structure within the material. By understanding the relationship between these factors, chemists are able to design new materials. The types of forces that can exist between particles are studied, along with several types of solid structures, in order to illustrate how these factors influence properties. The building blocks of materials are the elements and the relationship of their properties to their position in the Periodic Table is illustrated by a study of the elements of the s-block and Group 7. An introduction to organic chemistry provides the basis for an understanding of how the properties of carbon compounds can be modified by the introduction of functional groups.

6.1 - The Periodic Table

Candidates should be able to:

(a) describe the Periodic Table in terms of the arrangement of elements in groups and periods on the basis of their electronic structure and the classification of elements into s, p and d blocks;

(b) understand the general trends in ionisation energy, melting temperature, and electronegativity, across periods and down groups;

(c) recall the occurrence of elements as metals or non-metals in different parts of the Periodic Table, realise that metallic oxides are generally basic and non-metallic oxides acidic;

(d) assign oxidation states (numbers) to the atoms in a compound or ion and use these to decide which species have been oxidised and which reduced in a redox reaction;

(e) understand and explain the nature of oxidation and reduction in terms of electron transfer.