Physical chemistry - 4. States of matter


I The gaseous state:

II The liquid state - The kinetic concept of the liquid state and simple kinetic-molecular descriptions of changes of state

III The solid state - Lattice structures

Learning outcomes

Candidates should be able to:

(a) state the basic assumptios of the kinetic theory as applied to an ideal gas

(b) explain qualitatively in terms of intermolecular forces and molecular size:

(c) state and use the general gas equation pV = nRT in calculations, including the determination of Mr

(d) *describe, using a kinetic-molecular model: the liquid state, melting, vaporisation, vapour pressure

(e) *describe, in simple terms, the lattice structure of a crystalline solid which is:

(iv) hydrogen-bonded, as in ice

(v) metallic, as in copper [the concept of the ‘unit cell’ is not required]

(f) explain the strength, high melting point and electrical insulating properties of ceramics in terms of their giant molecular structure

(g) relate the uses of ceramics, based on magnesium oxide, aluminium oxide and silicon(IV) oxide, to their properties (suitable examples include furnace linings, electrical insulators, glass, crockery)

(h) describe and interpret the uses of the metals aluminium (including its alloys) and copper (including brass), in terms of their physical properties

(i) understand that materials are a finite resource and the importance of recycling processes

(j) outline the importance of hydrogen bonding to the physical properties of substances, including ice and water

(k) suggest from quoted physical data the type of structure and bonding present in a substance