Physical chemistry - 1. Atoms, molecules and stoichiometry

2. Atomic structure

Content

I The nucleus of the atom: neutrons and protons, isotopes, proton and nucleon numbers

II Electrons: electronic energy levels, ionisation energies, atomic orbitals, extranuclear structure

Learning outcomes

Candidates should be able to:

(a) *identify and describe protons, neutrons and electrons in terms of their relative charges and relative masses

(b) *deduce the behaviour of beams of protons, neutrons and electrons in electric fields

(c) describe the distribution of mass and charges within an atom

(d) deduce the numbers of protons, neutrons and electrons present in both atoms and ions given proton and nucleon numbers (and charge)

(e) AZE

(f) *describe the number and relative energies of the s, p and d orbitals for the principal quantum numbers 1, 2 and 3 and also the 4s and 4p orbitals.

(g) *describe the shapes of s and p orbitals

(h) state the electronic configuration of atoms and ions given the proton number (and charge)

(i) ionisation energy

(j) deduce the electronic configurations of elements from successive ionisation energy data

(k) *interpret successive ionisation energy data of an element in terms of the position of that element within the Periodic Table