10. Organic chemistry - 10.7 Nitrogen compounds

Content

I - Primary amines (exemplified by ethylamine and phenylamine)

II - Amides (exemplified by ethanamide)

III - Amino acids (exemplified by aminoethanoic acid)

IV - Proteins

Learning outcomes

Candidates should be able to:

(a) describe the formation of ethylamine (by nitrile reduction – see also Section 10.3) and of phenylamine (by the reduction of nitrobenzene)

(b) explain the basicity of amines

(c) explain the relative basicities of ammonia, ethylamine and phenylamine in terms of their structures

(d) describe the reaction of phenylamine with:

(e) describe the coupling of benzenediazonium chloride and phenol and the use of similar reactions in the formation of dyestuff

(f) describe the formation of amides from the reaction between RNH2 and R'COCl

(g) describe amide hydrolysis on treatment with aqueous alkali or acid

(h) describe the acid/base properties of amino acids and the formation of zwitterions

(i) describe the formation of peptide bonds between amino acids and, hence, explain protein formation

(j) describe the hydrolysis of proteins

(k) describe the formation of polyamides (see also Section 10.8).