10. Organic chemistry - 10.6 Carboxylic acids and derivatives


I - Carboxylic acids (exemplified by ethanoic acid and benzoic acid)

II - Acyl chlorides (exemplified by ethanoyl chloride)

III - Esters (exemplified by ethyl ethanoate and phenyl benzoate)

Learning outcomes

Candidates should be able to:

(a) describe the formation of carboxylic acids from alcohols, aldehydes and nitriles

(b) describe the reactions of carboxylic acids in the formation of:

(c) explain the acidity of carboxylic acids and of chlorine substituted ethanoic acids in terms of their structures

(d) describe the hydrolysis of acyl chlorides

(e) describe the reactions of acyl chlorides with alcohols, phenols and primary amines

(f) explain the relative ease of hydrolysis of acyl chlorides, alkyl chlorides and aryl chlorides

(g) describe the formation of esters from carboxylic acids or acyl chlorides, using ethyl ethanoate and phenyl benzoate as examples

(h) *describe the acid and base hydrolysis of esters.

(i) describe the formation of polyesters (see also Section 10.8).

(j) state the major commercial uses of esters e.g. solvents, perfumes, flavourings.