10. Organic chemistry - 10.5 Carbonyl compounds

Content

I Aldehydes (exemplified by ethanal)

II Ketones (exemplified by propanone and phenylethanone)

Learning outcomes

Candidates should be able to:

(a) describe

(b) *describe the mechanism of the nucleophilic addition reactions of hydrogen cyanide with aldehydes and ketones

(c) describe the use of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-DNPH) reagent to detect the presence of carbonyl compounds

(d) deduce the nature (aldehyde or ketone) of an unknown carbonyl compound from the results of simple tests (i.e. Fehling’s and Tollens’ reagents; ease of oxidation)

(e) describe the reaction of CH3CO– compounds with alkaline aqueous iodine to give tri-iodomethane