9. Inorganic chemistry - 9.3 Group IV

The elements carbon to lead as a group in which the physical and chemical properties of the elements change with increase in proton number from non-metals through metalloids to metals and their compounds.

Content

I - The variation in melting points and electrical conductivities of the elements

II - The bonding, molecular shape, volatility and hydrolysis of the tetrachlorides

III - The bonding, acid/base nature and thermal stability of the oxides of oxidation states II and IV

IV - The relative stability of higher and lower oxidation states for the elements in their oxides and aqueous cations

Learning outcomes

Candidates should be able to:

(a) outline the variation in melting point and in electrical conductivity of the elements and interpret them in terms of structure and bonding

(b) describe and explain the bonding in, molecular shape and volatility of the tetrachlorides

(c) describe and explain the reactions of the tetrachlorides with water in terms of structure and bonding

(d) describe and explain the bonding, acid-base nature and thermal stability of the oxides of oxidation states II and IV

(e) describe and explain the relative stability of higher and lower oxidation states of the elements in their oxides and aqueous cations including, where relevant, E values

(f) recognise the properties and uses of ceramics based on silicon(IV) oxide